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Peer reviewed publications on broader issues in chemical risk assessment and management

Backhaus, T (2018): Chemical pollution of the Baltic Sea – a brief overview and assessment. Baltic Rim Economics, 1/2018, 57-58

Backhaus, T., Scheringer, M., Wang, Z. (2018) Developing SAICM into a Framework for the International Governance of Chemicals Throughout Their Lifecycle: Looking Beyond 2020 Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, in press

Coria, J (2018). The Economics of Toxic Substance Control– the REACH Directive. Review of Environmental Economics and
Policy, in press https://doi.org/10.1093/reep/rey003

Karlsson, TM, Arneborg, L., Broström, G., Carney Almroth, B., Gipperth,L., and Hassellöv, M. (2018) The accountability case of plastic pellet pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol 129 (1), P 52–60 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.01.041

Apitz S, Attanasio R, Backhaus T, Barnthouse L, Batley G, Brauman K, Brooks B, Chapman P, Griffin M, Kapustka L, Landis W, Leung K, Linkov I, Meador J, Olsen S, Tannenbaum L, Toll J, Suter G, Wenning R. (2017). Environmental policy recommendations for the new US President. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 13(1), 7-7. https://doi.org/10.1002/ieam.1856

Apitz, S., Backhaus, T., Suter, G., and Landis, W. (2017) Science, anti-science and environmental decision making: A call to action. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 13(4), 557–559 http://doi.org/10.1002/ieam.1937

Gipperth,L. and Backhaus, T. (2017). The Lack of Regulation of Chemical Mixtures and its Legal Consequences in the Baltic Sea Area. In: Regulatory Voids and Legal Hotspots in the Baltic Sea by Henrik Ringbom, 69-87. Springer Publishers.

Gustavsson, M., Hellohf, M. and Backhaus. T. (2017). Evaluating the environmental hazard of industrial chemicals from data collected during the REACH registration process. Science of the Total Environment. 586, 658-665. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.039

Nordborg, M., Arvidsson, R., Finnveden, G., Cederberg, C., Sörme, L., Palm, V., . . . Molander, S. (2017). Updated indicators of Swedish national human toxicity and ecotoxicity footprints using USEtox 2.01. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 62, 110-114. http://doi:10.1016/j.eiar.2016.08.004

Rendahl, P. The scope for member states to introduce taxes, charges and fees on harmful substances – A Swedish perspective, Nordic Tax Journal. Submitted for review.

Selck H, Adamsen PB, Backhaus T, Banta GT, Bruce PKH, Burton GA, Butts MB, Boegh E, Clague JJ, Dinh KV, Doorn N, Gunnarsson JS, Hauggaard-Nielsen H, Hazlerigg C, Hunka AD, Jensen J, Lin Y, Loureiro S, Miraglia S, Munns WR Jr, Nadim F, Palmqvist A, Rämö RA, Seaby LP, Syberg K, Tangaa SR, Thit A, Windfeld R, Zalewski M, Chapman PM. (2017). Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World – the Roskilde Recommendations. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 36(1), 7-16. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.3513

Backhaus, T, Seiler, T-B. (2016). Communicating environmental science to the general public. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 12: 415. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ieam.1787

Syberg, K.,Banta, G., Bruce, G., Gunnarsson, JS., Gustavsson, M., Munns, Jr. WR., Rämö, R., Selck, H., and Backhaus, T. (2016). Towards a conceptual approach for assessing risks from chemical mixtures and other stressors to coastal ecosystem services. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 13(2), 376-386, https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ieam.1849

Peer reviewed publications on specific chemicals and issues

Boulund F., Buongermino MP., Jonsson V., Kristiansson E. (2018). Computational and Statistical Considerations in the Analysis of Metagenomic Data. Book chapter in Metagenomics: Perspectives, Methods, and Applications. Camebridge: Academic press.

Egardt, J., Larsen, M. M., Lassen, P. & Dahllöf, I. (2018). Release of PAHs and heavy metals in coastal environments linked to leisure boats. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 127, 664-671. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.12.060

Kraupner N., Ebmeyer S., Bengtsson-Palme J., Fick J., Kristiansson E., Flach CF., Larsson DGJ. (2018). Selective concentration for ciprofloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli grown in complex aquatic bacterial biofilms. Environmental international 116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.213

Pereira MB., Wallroth M., Jonsson V., Kristiansson E. (2018). Comparison of normalization methods for the analysis of metagenomic gene abundance data. BMC genomics 19 (1), 274. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-018-4637-6

Verbruggen B., Gunnarsson L., Kristiansson E., Österlund T., Owen SF., Snape JR., Tyler CR, (2018). ECOdrug: a database connecting drugs and conservation of their targets across species, Nucleic Acids Research 46(D1). https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkx1024

Corcoll N., Österlund T., Sinclair L., Eiler A., Kristiansson E., Backhaus T., Eriksson KM. (2017). Comparison of four DNA extraction methods for comprehensive assessment of 16S rRNA bacterial diversity in marine biofilms using high-throughput sequencing. FEMS microbiology letters 364(14). https://doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnx139

Chapman, JL., Porsch, L., Vidaurre, R., Backhaus, T., Sinclair, C., Jones, G., and Boxall A. (2017) Three methods for integration of environmental risk into the benefit-risk assessment of veterinary medicinal products. Science of the Total Environment. Dec 15;605-606:692-701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.06.205

Corcoll, N.,Österlund, T., Sinclair, L., Eiler, A., Buck, M., Kristiansson, E., Backhaus, T., and Eriksson, K.M. (2017) Comparison of four DNA extraction methods for comprehensive assessment of 16S rRNA bacterial diversity in marine biofilms using high-throughput sequencing. FEMS Microbiology Letters http://doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnx139

Egardt, J., NIilsson, P. & Dahllöf, I. (2017). Sediments indicate the continued use of banned antifouling compounds. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 125, 282-288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.08.035

Flach CF., Pal C., Svensson CJ., Kristiansson E., Östman M., Bengtsson-Palme J., Tysklind M., Larsson DGJ. (2017). Does antifouling paint select for antibiotic resistance? Science of the Total Environment 590. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.213

Gustavsson M, Kreuger J, Bundschuh M, Backhaus, T. (2017) Pesticide mixtures in the Swedish streams: Environmental risks, contributions of individual compounds and consequences of single-substance oriented risk mitigation. Sci Total Environ. 2017 Nov 15; 598:973-983. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.122

Gustavsson, M., Magnér, J., Carney-Almroth, B., Eriksson, K.M., Sturve, J., and Backhaus, T. (2017). Chemical monitoring of Swedish coastal waters indicates common exceedances of environmental thresholds, both for individual substances as well as their mixtures. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 122, 1-2, 409-419, 15. Nov. 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.06.082

Harder, R., Peters, G. M., Svanström, M., Khan, S. J., & Molander, S. (2017). Estimating human toxicity potential of land application of sewage sludge: the effect of modelling choices. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 22(5), 731-743. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-016-1182-x

Jonsson V., Österlund T., Nerman O., Kristiansson E. (2017). Variability in metagenomic count data and its influence on the identification of differentially abundant genes. Journal of Computational Biology 24(4). https://doi.org/10.1089/cmb.2016.0180

Lindgren, J. F., Hassellöv, I. M., Nyholm, J. R., Ostin, A. & Dahllöf, I. (2017). Induced tolerance in situ to chronically PAH exposed ammonium oxidizers. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 120, 333-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.05.044

Menz, J., Baginska, E., Arrhenius, Å.,Haiβ, A., Backhaus,T., Kümmerer, K. (2017) Antimicrobial activity of pharmaceutical cocktails in STP effluent – An experimental and predictive approach to mixture risk assessment. Environmental Pollution. 231(Pt 2) 1507-1517 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.09.009

Muncke, J., Backhaus, T., Geueke B., Maffini, M.V., Martin, O.W., Peterson Myers, J., Soto, A.M., Trasande, L., XTrier, Z., and Scheringer, M. (2017). Scientific challenges in the risk assessment of food contact materials. Environmental Health Perspectives, 25(9):095001. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP644

Österlund T., Jonsson V., Kristiansson E. (2017). HirBin: high-resolution identification of differentially abundant functions in metagenomes. BMC Genomics 18(1) 316. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-017-3686-6

Asker N., Albertsson E., Wijkmark E., Bergek S., Parkkonen J., Kammann U., Holmqvist I., Kristiansson E., Strand J., Gercken J., Förlin L. (2016). Biomarker responses in eelpouts from four coastal areas in Sweden, Denmark and Germany. Marine environmental research 120.

Backhaus, T. (2016). Environmental Risk Assessment of pharmaceutical mixtures in Europe: demands, approaches, gaps and possible bridges. Journal of American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 18(4), 804-813, https://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-016-9907-0

Wendt I, Arrhenius Å, Backhaus T, Blanck H The toxicity of the three antifouling biocides DCOIT, TPBP and medetomidine to the marine pelagic copepod Acartia tonsa, Ecotoxicology, (2016), 1-9, https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-016-1644-8

Brandt KK, Amezquita A, Backhaus T, Boxall A, Coors A, Heberer T, Lawrence JR, Lazorchak J, Schönfeld J, Snape JR, Zhu JG, Topp E: Ecotoxicological assessment of antibiotics: a call for improved consideration of microorganisms, Env Int. 85, 189-205, (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.09.013

Debate articles, popular press and newspaper articles
Backhaus, T.; Bergman, Å., Gustavsson, M., Rudén, C., and Öberg, M. Cocktaileffekten handlar om alla slags kemikalier, 14 feb 2018 in Svenska dagbladet, https://www.svd.se/cocktaileffekten-handlar-om-alla-slags-kemikalier English title: The cocktail-effect is about all types of chemicals, https://fram.gu.se/digitalAssets/1684/1684279_the-cocktail-effect-is-about-all-types-of-chemicals.pdf

Carney-Almroth, Backhaus et al. (2018) Felaktigt och oetiskt resonemang om migration ETC Göteborg https://goteborg.etc.se/debatt/felaktigt-och-oetiskt-resonemang-om-migration

Backhaus, T. and Rudén, C. Ekodomen mot Coop går emot vetenskapen Debate article in Svenska Dagblad, 7. July. 2017, https://www.svd.se/ekodomen-mot-coop-gar-emot-vetenskapen English title: The eco-verdict against Coop contradicts science. https://fram.gu.se/digitalAssets/1661/1661293_ekodomen-engelska2.pdf

Sterner, T. (2017). Hellre en bra fest än fyrverkerier, Dagstidningen ETC Göteborg. https://goteborg.etc.se/ledare/hellre-en-bra-fest-fyrverkerier

Backhaus, T., Bergman, Å., Bornehag, CG., Giwercman, A., Rudén, C., Söder, and Zoeller, RT. EU vågar inte ta strid mot farliga kemikalier. Debate article in Svenska Dagbladet, 12. Nov. 2016, http://www.svd.se/eu-vagar-inte-ta-strid-mot-farliga-kemikalier English title: The European Unions does not dare to take the battle against hazardous chemicals, translation available here https://fram.gu.se/digitalAssets/1649/1649195_the-european-unions-does-not-dare-to-take-the-battle-against-hazardous-chemicals_eng.pdf

Slunge, D., Sterner, T., and Backhaus, T. Farliga kemikalier måste fasas ut snabbare. Debate article in Svenska Dagbladet, 21. April 2016, http://www.svd.se/farliga-kemikalier-maste-fasas-ut-snabbare English title: More ambitious chemicals policy needed - the phase out of hazardous substances in Europe is unreasonably slow, translation available here https://fram.gu.se/digitalAssets/1575/1575256_opinion---need-for-a-more-ambitious-chemicals-policy-in-europe---april-21-2016.pdf

Öberg, M., Edlund, U., Backhaus, T., and Karlsson, H. (2016) Sex steg för att lyckas med säkra nanomaterial. Debate article in NyTeknik, 17. May 2016, http://www.nyteknik.se/opinion/nanomaterialens-potential-riskeras-av-brist-pa-regler-6574799 English title: Six steps to succeed with the safety of nanomaterials, translation available here https://fram.gu.se/digitalAssets/1641/1641383_six-steps-to-succeed-with-safe-nanomaterials_english.pdf

Coria, J., Backhaus, T., Gipperth, L., Sterner, T., Slunge, D., and Rendahl, P. “Kemikalieskatter bidrar till en giftfri miljö”, July 1 2015 in Svenska Dagbladet. https://www.svd.se/kemikalieskatter-bidrar-till-en-giftfri-miljo English title: Chemical Taxation Contributes to a Non-Toxic Environment, translation available here https://fram.gu.se/digitalAssets/1575/1575258_opinion-paper---chemical-taxation-contributes-to-a-non-toxic-environment---july-1-2015.pdf

Other publications
Backhaus, T. and Wagner, M. (2018) Microplastics in the environment: much ado about nothing? A debate. PeerJ Preprints, 6:e26507v5 https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.26507v5

Coria, J. and A. Autade (2018). Analyzing the Effects of the Candidate List of Substances of Very High Concern on Chemical Production in Sweden. Working Paper Series. Department of Economics. University of Gothenburg.

Hassellöv, M., Gondikas, A., Mattsson, K., and Samuelsson, PO. (2018) Study of copper particle emissions in the harbor in Stenungsund. Report to Hav & Vattenmyndigheten

Hassellöv, M. (2018) Measurements of dispersion of microparticles from boat washing stations in Swedish leisure boat harbours. Report to Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management 2018.

Rendahl, P. 2017.Kemikalieskatt i Sverige? Till vilket eller vilka ändamål? In Tjernberg, M., Rendahl, P. och Wenander, H. (ed.) Festskrift till Christina Moëll. Juristförlaget i Lund, pp. 373-382.

Backhaus, T., Gustavsson, M., Yngsell, D. (2016). Report M-464 to the Norwegian Environment Agency Project No 2015/4102. Mixture toxicity contribution of emerging and legacy contaminants in environmental monitoring data from Norway

Other publication-related activities
FRAM’s results are regularly presented in the form of oral presentations and poster presentations on international conferences. A complete list is available on request.


Fifty central publications

The following publications give a selected overview of the expertise present in the FRAM consortium. They also address different facettes of the problem of complex chemical mixtures in the environment, its ecological boundaries, and finally on assessment and policy instruments for chemical management. 

[1] Regulatory perspectives on the toxicity of chemical cocktails in the environment
[2] Ecosystem Services
[3] Boundaries for Chemicals in the Environment
[4] Exposure Assessment and Modeling
[5] Concepts and approaches for ecotoxicological risk assessment
[6] Options for risk management, environmental policy and economics
[7] Taxation and international co-ordination
[8] Experimental assessment and evaluation of ecotoxicological and ecological impacts of chemical pollution
[9] Studies in the case-study areas

[1] Regulatory perspectives on the toxicity of chemical cocktails in the environment

1) Kortenkamp, A., Backhaus, T., Faust, M. 2009. State of the Art Report on Mixture Toxicity. Report for the Directorate General for the Environment of the EU Commission.
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The report provides an overview of existing approaches for assessing the environmental impact of chemical cocktails, policy gaps and options as well as future challenges.

2) Backhaus, T., Faust, M. 2012. Predictive environmental risk assessment of chemical mixtures: a conceptual framework. Environmental Science & Technology, 46(5), 2564.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es2034125
The paper provides the scientific methods necessary for improving the realism of chemical risk assessment by making it mixture-aware. Instruments and approaches especially for industrial chemicals are provided.

3) Backhaus, T. 2015. An additional assessment factor (MAF) – a suitable approach for improving the regulatory risk assessment of chemical mixtures?. Report for the Swedish Chemicals Agency, Report 5/2015.
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4) Backhaus, T., Faust, M., Kortenkamp, A. 2013. Cumulative Risk Assessment: a European perspective on the state of the art and the necessary next steps forward. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 9(4), 547.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ieam.1475

5) Backhaus, T., Faust, M. 2010. Hazard and Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures under REACH: State of the Art, Gaps and Options for Improvement. PM for the Swedish Chemicals Agency, PM 3/2010.
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[2] Ecosystem Services

6) Fisher, B., Polasky, S., Sterner, T. 2011. Conservation and Human Welfare: Economic Analysis of Ecosystem Services. Environmental and Resource Economics, 48(2), 151.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10640-010-9415-0
This paper is an overview paper discussing the need for integration of economics into the area of biological conservation.

7) Backhaus, T., Snape, J., Lazorchak, J. 2012. The impact of chemical pollution on biodiversity and ecosystem services: the need for an improved understanding. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 8(4), 575.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ieam.1353

[3] Boundaries for Chemicals in the Environment

8) Diamond, M., de Wit, C.A., Molander, S., Scheringer, M., Backhaus, T., Arvidsson, R., Bergman, Å., Hauschild, M., Holoubek, I., Lohmann, R., Persson, L., Suzuki, N., Vighi, M., Zetzsch, C. 2015. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution. Environment International, 78, 8–15.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.02.001
Discusses the shortcomings of the current “open” governance system for chemicals that assumes that each new chemical is released in an otherwise unpolluted environment and explores the possibilities to set boundaries for chemical stress.

9) Scheringer, M., Backhaus, T., Bergman, Å., de Wit, C., Diamond, M., Hauschild, M., Holoubek, I., Lohmann, R., Molander, S., Arvidsson, R., Persson, L., Suzuki, N., Vighi, M. 2012. Planetary boundaries for chemical pollution. Organohalogen Compounds, 74, 1182-1185.

[4] Exposure Assessment and Modeling

10) Hammes, J., Gallego-Urrea, J.A., Hassellöv, M. 2013. Geographically distributed classification of surface water chemical parameters influencing fate and behavior of nanoparticles and colloid facilitated contaminant transport. Water Research, 47(14), 5350-5361.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.06.015
The paper discusses how different hydrologies and water chemistries impact the fate and consequently the expected ecological impact of chemical pollution, explored using man-made nanoparticles as an example. It shows how environmental characteristics can be accounted for in an exposure assessment

11) Arvidsson, R., Molander, S., Sandén, B.A., Hassellöv, M. 2011. Challenges in exposure modeling of nanoparticles in aquatic environments. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 17(1), 245.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2011.538639
A new fate model to predict environmental concentrations of manufactured nanoparticles is presented. Such models are a principle option to pro-actively model chemical exposure in total.

12) Sobek, A., Gustafsson, Ö., Cornelissen, G., Tiselius, P. 2006. Passive partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls between seawater and zooplankton - a study comparing observed field distributions to equilibrium sorption experiments. Environmental Science and Technology, 40(21), 6703-6708.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es061248c

13) Hassellöv, M., Readman, J., Ranville, J., Tiede, K. 2008. Nanoparticle analysis and characterization methodology in environmental risk assessment of engineered nanoparticles. Ecotoxicology, 17(5), 344.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es061248c10.1007/s10646-008-0225-x

14) Praetorius, A., Arvidsson, R., Molander, S., Scheringer, M. 2013. Facing complexity through informed simplifications: A research agenda for aquatic exposure assessment of nanoparticles. Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts, 15, 161-168.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2em30677h

15) Arvidsson, R., Molander, S., Sandén, B.A., Hassellöv, M. 2011. Challenges in exposure modelling of nanoparticles in aquatic environments. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 17(1), 245-262.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-9290.2011.00400.x

[5] Concepts and approaches for ecotoxicological risk assessment

16) Gunnarsson, L., Jauhiainen, A., Kristiansson, E., Nerman, O. and Larsson, D.G.J. 2008. Evolutionary Conservation of Human Drug Targets in Organisms used for Environmental Risk Assessments. Environmental Science and Technology, 42(15), 5807–5813.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es8005173
The paper analyses how toxicological impacts of chemical pollution can be extrapolated between different environmental organisms, and the genetic basis therefore. This facilitates the selection of appropriate test organisms and hence improved strategies for environmental hazard assessment.

17) Moraes, R., Gerhard, P., Andersson, L., Sturve, J., Rausch, S., Molander, S. 2003. Establishing causality between exposure to metals and effects on fish. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 9(1), 149-169.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713609857
Establishing and validating the causal link between chemical pollution and observed ecotoxicological effects is one of the main challenges for developing ecosystem management strategies. The paper explores the possibilities and limitations for doing so using metal pollution as an example.

18) Brack, W., … , Backhaus, T. 2015. The SOLUTIONS project: Challenges and responses for present and future emerging pollutants in land and water resources management. Science of the Total Environment, 503-504, 22-31.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.143

19) Corsi, I., … , Hassellöv, M. 2014. Common strategies and technologies for the ecosafety assessment and design of nanomaterials entering the marine environment. ACS NANO, 8(10), 9694-9709.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn504684k

20) Kristiansson, E., Österlund, T., Gunnarsson, L., Arne, G., Larsson, D.G.J. and Nerman, O. 2013. A novel method for cross-species analysis of gene expression analysis. BMC Bioinformatics, 14(70).
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-14-70

21) Guinée, J.B., de Koning, A., Pennington, D.W., Rosenbaum, R., Hauschild, M., Olsen, S.I., Molander, S., Bachmann, T.M., Pant, R. 2004. Bringing Science and Pragmatism together: A Tiered Approach for Modelling Toxicological Impacts in LCA. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 9(5), 320-326.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1065/lca2004.08.163

22) Palme, U., Lundin, M., Tillman, A.M., Molander, S. 2005. Sustainable development indicators for wastewater systems – researchers and indicator users in a co-operative case study. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 43(3), 293-311.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2004.06.006

23) Molander, S., Lidholm, P., Schowanek, D., Recasens, M., Fullana i Palmer, P., Christensen, F.M., Guinée, J.B., Hauschild, M., Jolliet, O., Carlson, R., Pennington, D.W., Bachmann, T.M. 2004. OMNIITOX - operational life-cycle impact assessment models and information tools for practitioners. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 9(5), 282-286.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02979417

24) Moraes, R., Molander, S. 2004. A Procedure for Ecological Tiered Assessment of Risks (PETAR). Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 10(2), 349-371.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10807030490438427

[6] Options for risk management, environmental policy and economics 

25) Revesz, R.L., Howard, P.H., Arrow, K., Goulder, L.H., Kopp, R.E., Livermore, M.A., Oppenheimer, M. and Sterner, T. 2014. Global warming: Improve economic models of climate change. Nature, 508, 173-175.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/508173a
This paper argues in support of the notion that there is sufficient scientific consensus for at least a minimum value of the social cost of carbon – as an example on how to account for the costs of emissions into the environment.

26) Green, J., Sterner, T., & Wagner, G. 2014. A balance of bottom-up and top-down in linking climate policies. Nature Climate Change, 4(12), 1064-1067.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2429
This paper argues that we need an international system for organizing permit trading areas, in addition to simple more localized systems.

27) Ambec, S. and Coria, J. 2013. Prices vs. Quantities with Multiple Pollutants, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 66(1): 123-140
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeem.2012.11.002
This publication analyzes how multiple pollutants are regulated best. Instruments that are analyzed in detail include taxes and quantity restrictions such as standards and emission permits.

28) Ölund Wingqvist, G., Drakenberg, O., Slunge, D., Sjöstedt, M. Ekbom, A. 2012. The Role of Governance for Improved Environmental Outcomes. Report 6514. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm.
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The report demonstrates how improved attention to various governance and management aspects improves environmental outcomes

29) Coria, J. and Sterner, T. 2011. Natural Resource Management: Challenges and Policy Options. Annual Review of Resource Economics, 3, 203-230.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-resource-083110-120131

30) Arrow, K., Cropper, M. L., Gollier, C., Groom, B., Heal G. M., Newell, R. G., Nordhaus, W. D., Pindyck, R. S., Pizer, W. A., Portney, P., Sterner, T., Tol, R., Weitzman, M. L. 2013. Determining Benefits and Costs for Future Generations. Science, 6144, 349.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1235665

31) Sundblad, E., Grimvall, A., Gipperth, L., Morf, A. 2014. Structuring social data for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Marine Policy, 45, 1.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2013.11.004

32) Gipperth, L. 2009. The legal design of the international and european union ban on tributyltin antifouling paint: Direct and indirect effects. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(1), S86-S95.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2008.08.013

33) Ölund Wingqvist, G. and Slunge, D. 2013. Governance Bottlenecks and Policy Options for Sustainable Materials Management - A Discussion paper. United Nations Development Programme and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.
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34) Coria, J. 2009. Taxes, Permits and the Diffusion of a New Technology, Resource and Energy Economics 31 (4): 249-271.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reseneeco.2009.04.004

35) Slunge, D. and Sterner, T. 2001. Implementation of Policy Instruments for Chlorinated Solvents. European Environment, 11(5), 281-296.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eet.271

[7] Taxation and international co-ordination

36) Coria, J., Backhaus, T., Gipperth, L., Sterner, T., Slunge, D. and Rendahl, P. 2015. Kemikalieskatter bidrar till en giftfri miljö. Svenska Dagbladet, 2015-07-01.
Link to the article
This opinion paper was written for the general public, in order to add to the ongoing discussion whether and to what extent environmental taxation is a helpful policy instrument for sustainable use of chemicals. It is also one of the first products of FRAM, developed in parallel to working on the full proposal.

37) Rendahl, P. 2009. Unilateral Measures to Avoid International Double (Non-) Taxation: VAT/GST vs. Direct Taxation Value Added Tax and Direct Taxation: Similarities and Differences. In Lange, et al. (Ed.), Value Added Tax and Direct Taxation (pp.1119-1144). Amsterdam: International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation.

38) Rendahl, P. 2013. EU VAT and Double Taxation: A Fine Line between Interpretation and Application. Intertax, 41(8/9), 450-461.

39) Rendahl, P. 2015. Mervärdesskattelagens ändamålsenlighet. SkatteNytt, 9, 648-660.

40) Rendahl, P. 2013. Omsättningslandsreglernas ändamål, konstruktion och tolkning i EU-mervärdesskatterätten. SkatteNytt, Akademisk Årsskrift 2013.

[8] Experimental assessment and evaluation of ecotoxicological and ecological impacts of chemical pollution

41) Arvidsson, R., Molander, S., Sandén, B.A. 2014. Assessing the Environmental Risks of Silver from Clothes in an Urban Area. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 20(4), 1008-1022.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2012.691412

42) Karle, I.M., Agrenius, S., Molander, S., Magnusson, K., Blanck, H., Dahl, B., Hall, O.J., Dahllöf, I. 2007. Verification of a benthic boxcosm system with potential for extrapolating experimental results to the field. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 353(2), 265-278.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2007.09.014

43) Magnusson, K., Magnusson, M., Östberg, P., Granberg, M., Tiselius, P. 2007. Bioaccumulation of 14C-PCB 101 and 14C-PBDE 99 in the marine planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus under different food regimes, 63(1), 67-81.
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44) Rutgersson, C., Gunnarsson, L., Kristiansson, E., Larsson, D.G.J. 2013. Oral exposure to industrial effluent with exceptionally high levels of drugs does not indicate acute toxic effects in rats. Environmental Science and Chemistry, 32(2), 577-584.
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[9] Studies in the case-study areas

45) Moraes, R., Landis, W.G., Molander, S. 2002. Regional Risk Assessment of a Brazilian Rain Forest Reserve. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 8(7), 1779-1803.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20028091057600

46) Asker, N., Kristiansson, E., Albertsson, E., Larsson, D.G.J., Förlin, L. (2013). Hepatic transcriptome profiling indicates differential mRNA expression of apoptosis and immune related genes in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) caught at Göteborg harbor, Sweden. Aquatic Toxicology, 130-131, 58-67.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.12.017

47) Waite, A. M., Gustafsson, Ö, Lindahl, O., Tiselius, P. 2005. Linking ecosystem dynamics and biogeochemistry: sinking fractionation of organic material in a Swedish fjord. Limnology and Oceanography, 50(2), 658-671.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4319/lo.2005.50.2.0658

48) Peterson, W.T., Arcos, D.F., McManus, G., Dam, H., Bellantoni, D., Johnson, T., Tiselius, P. 1988. The nearshore zone during coastal upwelling: Daily variability and coupling between primary production and secondary production off Central Chile. Progress in Oceanography, 20(1), 1-40.

49) Kiørboe, T., Tiselius, P., Mitchell-Innes, B.A., Hansen, J.L.S., Visser, A.W., Mari, X. 1998. Intensive aggregate formation with low vertical flux during an upwelling induced diatom bloom. Limnology and Oceanography, 43(1),
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/104-116.10.4319/lo.1998.43.1.0104

50) Tiselius, P. and Kiørboe, T. 1998. Colonization of diatom aggregates by the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans. Limnolology and Oceanography, 43(1), 154-159.
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