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Case studies

FRAM’s concepts and policy instruments will be anchored to the practice of chemical risk assessment and management in different political contexts and will be empirically validated. This will be achieved by a series of case studies which will be implemented in a gradient of regulatory environments and socioeconomic contexts.

1. Sweden: Stenungsund Bay

Stenungsund is a municipality at the Swedish west coast, about 40 km north of Gothenburg. It is host to the biggest chemical cluster in Sweden, centered around a steam cracker that produces ethylene and various fuel gases, which are then used by a range of companies for the production of polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), amines, detergents, and various other chemicals. Additionally, there are several harbors situated along the coast.

2. United States of America: Chesapeake Bay

Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States, approximately 300 km long and 60 km wide, spanning six states. More than 17 million people reside along its coastline and it is home to thousands of plants and animal species. The bay is notorious for its poor water-quality conditions due to excessive nutrients, sediment, and toxic contamination, which continuously impact ecosystem health. Toxic contaminants include metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and a broad range of pesticides. Of new concern are chemical emissions from fracking activities, i.e. the drilling into shale deposits for natural gas.

3. Chile: Aconcagua River

The Aconcagua River runs about 142 km through five Chilean provinces, supporting a number of cities along its way. The most important economic activities in the river basin are agriculture, mining and chemical production. Consequently, several studies have identified the pollution of the ecosystem with pesticide residues, heavy metals (especially mercury and chromium).

4. Kenya: Lake Naivasha

Lake Naivasha is the second largest freshwater lake in Kenya. It harbors a unique flora and fauna and has been declared a “wetland of international importance” under the Ramsar convention. Horticultural industry represents the main economic activity in the lake area, accompanied by tourism and fishing. As horticulture is quite laborintensive and therefore provides employment opportunities, the population of the town of Naivasha and the surrounding area lake hinterland has increased fifty-fold over the past three decades. As most settlements have only rudimentary waste treatment, and the shoreline is routinely used for laundry, the lake is not only polluted by pesticide residues and heavy metals, but also by a broad range of other organic pollutants. However, state-of-the-art chemical monitoring programs are completely absent.

Page Manager: Ida W. Brattström|Last update: 12/15/2016

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